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What is the impact of ambient temperature on battery performance?

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2021-11-03 11:49:38

What is the impact of ambient temperature on battery performance?

Among all the environmental factors, temperature has the greatest impact on the charge and discharge performance of the battery. The electrochemical reaction at the electrode/electrolyte interface is related to the ambient temperature, and the electrode/electrolyte interface is regarded as the heart of the lithium battery.

If the temperature drops, the reaction rate of the electrodes also drops. Assuming that the battery voltage remains constant and the discharge current decreases, the power output of the battery will also decrease. If the temperature rises, the opposite is true, and the battery output power will rise. Temperature also affects the transfer speed of the electrolyte, and the temperature rise accelerates. When the temperature drops, the transmission slows down, and the charging and discharging performance of the lithium battery will also be affected.

But if the temperature is too high, it will destroy the chemical balance in the battery and cause side reactions. The discharge efficiency of nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, and lithium batteries will be significantly reduced at low temperatures (such as lower than -15), and at -20, the lye reaches the freezing point, and the battery charging speed will also be greatly reduced.

Charging at a low temperature below 0 will increase the internal pressure of the battery and open the safety valve when possible. In order to charge effectively, the ambient temperature range should be between 0 degrees and 28 degrees. Generally, the charging efficiency will increase with the increase of temperature. However, when the temperature rises above 45, the performance of rechargeable lithium battery materials at high temperatures will degrade, and the battery The cycle life will also be greatly shortened.
4 major factors affecting the life span of battery

1. Depth of discharge and rechargeable times

The number of rechargeable times is related to the depth of discharge. The deeper the depth of discharge of the battery, the fewer times the battery can be recharged. The number of rechargeable times * depth of discharge = the number of completed charging cycles, the higher the number of completed charging cycles, the higher the battery life, you can charge times * depth of discharge = actual battery life (ignoring other factors)

2. Overcharge, overdischarge, and large charge and discharge current

Avoid overcharging the battery. Any form of overcharging of lithium-ion batteries will cause serious damage to battery performance and even explosion. Avoid deep discharges below 2V or 2.5V, as this will quickly and permanently damage the lithium-ion battery. Internal metal plating may occur, which can cause a short circuit, making the battery unusable or unsafe.

Most lithium-ion batteries have an electronic circuit inside the battery pack. If the battery voltage is lower than 2.5V, exceeds 4.3V during charging or discharging, or if the battery current exceeds a predetermined threshold, the electronic circuit will disconnect the battery. Avoid large charging and discharging currents, because large currents put excessive pressure on the battery.

3. Too hot or cold environment

Temperature also has a greater impact on the life of lithium batteries. The environment below freezing point may cause the lithium battery to burn out when the electronic product is turned on, and the overheated environment will reduce the battery capacity. Therefore, if the notebook is used for a long time without removing the battery from an external power source, the battery will be exposed to the high heat discharged from the notebook for a long time and will soon be scrapped.

4. Long time full and no power state

Experiments show that for some laptop lithium batteries, the battery voltage often exceeds the standard voltage by 0.1 volts, that is, from 4.1 volts to 4.2 volts, then the battery life will be halved, and if it is increased by another 0.1 volts, the life will be reduced to the original 1 /3; The more fully charged the battery, the greater the loss of the battery.

The long-term low or no power state will make the resistance of the electron movement inside the battery larger and larger, thus causing the battery capacity to become smaller. Lithium batteries are best in an intermediate state of power, in which case the battery life is the longest.
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Solar Light Magazine / Solar Street Lights / Author: Cmoonlight

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